February 8
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Plant Genus of the family Juglandaceae

Genus Description Cultivation
Carya This genus consists of about 25 species of which the majority come from eastern North America and 3 or 4 from Vietnam and China. These large deciduous trees have male and female flowers on the same tree. The gray to brown bark becomes scaly with age. The serrated-edged leaves are pinnate or alternate with 3 terminal leaflets. The male inflorescence is a pendent branched catkin. The female inflorescence appears on a terminal spike with up to 20 individual flowers. The fruit is a drupe; the outer skin comes away in 4 segments, which are occasionally winged. Commercially the genus is valuable for the nuts such as pecans contained in the inner part of the fruit. Hickory wood is a hard wood, used for tools and sports equipment. They resent disturbance and are difficult to transplant. Most hickories are valued for their ornamental qualities as they make majestic trees and the foliage colors well in autumn. CULTIVATION: Seedlings develop a long tap root very early and need to be planted when young into deep, fertile, humus-rich but well-drained soil. The seed should be sown into a seed bed as soon as it is ripe. If growing a species in a pot, use one that is extra deep. Use good loam with added leafmold; cultivars needed to be grafted in winter.
Juglans The walnuts, a genus of about 20 species of deciduous trees, are distributed over the temperate zones of the Americas, southeastern Europe and Southeast Asia. They have alternate compound leaves and monoecious flowers, borne in spring. The fruit is a hard-shelled nut enclosed in a fleshy green drupe, the kernels being much prized for food. Several species are of considerable ornamental value, mainly for their handsome form and foliage; some produce a hard and often beautifully grained wood that is valued for furniture making and the stocks of high-quality shotguns. The English walnuts are generally the first choice for nuts, the American species for ornament and timber. Some species produce a substance in their roots called juglose that can be poisonous to apple trees. CULTIVATION: Walnuts thrive on deep alluvial soils, preferably with a high organic content, well drained and with an assured water supply, in a cool humid climate. Commercial orchards of English walnuts are, paradoxically, more common in western USA than in Europe. Plantation trees are often severely pruned after 1 year to force strong single trunk growth, then stopped at 12 ft (3.5 m) or so to induce lateral branches; ornamental trees may be treated the same way. Seeds can be collected as soon as ripe in early autumn and stored in cool conditions until it is sown in early spring. Clone material is usually increased by budding onto 1-year-old seedling understocks in late spring or by apical grafting in late winter or early spring.

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