December 10
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Plant Species of the genus Rosa

Information about this genus
Name: Rosa
Cultivation: CULTIVATION: Roses can be grown in separate beds or mixed borders, in formal and informal settings, as ground covers, climbing up arches and pergolas, scrambling up trees, as hedging and in containers. Such is the popularity of roses that numerous books are devoted to their cultivation. Generally, roses require a site that is sunny for most of the day, as shade inhibits flowering. They should not be overcrowded and there should be good air movement around the plants, factors that help reduce the risk of disease. Roses will grow in most well-drained medium-loamy soils in which compost or organic manure has been incorporated. When planting, the point at which the plant is grafted should be about 1 in (25 mm) below the soil. Granular or liquid rose fertilizer can be applied once or twice a year from spring. Plants should be watered well in dry periods and a mulch will help to conserve moisture in summer. Roses that flower more than once should be deadheaded to encourage further blooms. Roses should be pruned to maintain strong healthy growth, a good shape, and to let light into the plant. A number of pruning regimes are promoted for different rose groups, but recent research has shown that a simple ?tidying up? of dead wood and pruning for size may be just as effective. Most pruning is done when the plants are dormant in winter. Fungal diseases such as rust, black spot and mildew can be a problem, particularly in humid areas. A number of insect pests can also be troublesome, the most common being aphids. Others include spider mites, thrips, leafhoppers, froghoppers and scale. Fungicidal and insecticidal sprays, both chemical and organic, are available to combat these problems. Roses planted in a position previously occupied by another rose can suffer rose sickness?to prevent this a generous amount of the old soil should be removed and replaced with a fresh supply. Most roses are very hardy and indeed benefit from a period of winter cold, but some of the old Tea roses are a little tender and are better suited to warm-temperate climates. In warm areas roses often grow much larger than their cool-climate counterparts and can be more prone to problems caused by mild winters not killing off pests and diseases. Propagation in commercial quantities is usually from budding, but the gardener can take hardwood cuttings in autumn or softwood cuttings in summer. While hybrid plants will not come true from seed, the species can be propagated in this way; there may be some variation from the parent plant, and chance hybrids may occur.
Description: The genus Rosa is one of the most widely grown and best loved of all plant genera around the world. It belongs to the large rose family, which includes a wide range of favorite fruiting plants such as apples, plums and strawberries as well as ornamentals. Since ancient times roses have been valued for their beauty and fragrance as well as for their medicinal, culinary and cosmetic properties. There are between 100?150 species of rose, which range in habit from erect and arching shrubs to scramblers and climbers. The majority of species are deciduous and most have prickles or bristles. They are found in temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere; none are native to the Southern Hemisphere. The pinnate leaves are usually comprised of 5 to 9, but sometimes more, serrated-edged leaflets. Flowers range from single, usually 5-petalled, blooms to those with many closely packed petals. They are borne singly or in clusters. Many are intensely fragrant. The majority of species and old garden roses flower only once but most of the modern cultivars are repeat blooming. Rose fruits (hips or heps) are very rich in vitamin C. They are usually orangey red, but can be dark, and can be very decorative. They may be small and in clusters or single large fruits. Roses have been bred for many centuries and are divided into a number of recognized groups. The old garden roses were originally bred from a handful of species and include groups such as Gallica and Alba. In the late eighteenth century the repeat-flowering China rose (Rosa chinensis) arrived in Europe and subsequent cross-breeding extended the number of Old Rose groups further. The Tea roses, also repeat-flowering, followed in the nineteenth century, and fifty years later a Frenchman bred the first Large-flowered rose, heralding the start of modern rose breeding. Large-flowered, Polyantha, Cluster-flowered and Shrub roses proroses proliferated in the twentieth century. While most of the species and Old Roses are in shades of pink, red and purple or white, modern rose-breeding programs have seen the color range increase to include shades of yellow and orange.

Specie Vernacular Zone
acicularis 2?9
alba white rose of York
arkansana 4?9
blanda 3?9
borboniana Bourbon rose
canina 3?10
carolina Carolina rose
centifolia cabbage rose
cinnamomea cinnamon rose
damascena damask rose
eglanteria 4?10
gallica 5?10
glauca 3?10
majalis double cinnamon rose
micrantha smallflower sweetbrier
moschata 6?10
multiflora 5?10
nitida 3?10
odorata tea rose
palustris 4?10
pomifera 5?10
rehderiana polyantha rose
Rosa 3 macrantha 6?10
Rosa 3 pteragonis 5?9
Rosa amblyotis 5?9
Rosa banksiae 7?10
Rosa beggeriana 4?9
Rosa bracteata 7?10
Rosa californica 5?10
Rosa chinensis 7?10
Rosa cinnamomea plena 6?10
Rosa davidii 6?10
Rosa davurica 5?9
Rosa dumalis 4?9
Rosa ecae 7?10
Rosa elegantula 6?10
Rosa fedtschenkoana 4?10
Rosa foetida 4?10
Rosa foliolosa 6?10
Rosa helenae 5?10
Rosa inodora 6?9
Rosa laevigata 7?10
Rosa marretii 6?9
Rosa moyesii 5?10
Rosa multibracteata 7?10
Rosa nutkana 4?10
Rosa pendulina 5?10
Rosa pisocarpa 6?10
Rosa primula 5?10
Rosa roxburghii 5?10
Rosa rubus 8?10
Rosa sempervirens 7?10
Rosa sericea 6?10
Rosa setipoda 6?10
Rosa sherardii 5?9
Rosa soulieana 7?10
Rosa stellata 6?10
Rosa sweginzowii 6?10
Rosa willmottiae 6?10
Rosa xanthina 5?10
Rosa: Alba Roses 4?10
Rosa: Bourbon Roses 6?10
Rosa: Bush Roses
Rosa: Centifolia Roses 5?10
Rosa: China Roses 7?10
Rosa: Cluster-flowered (Floribunda) Roses 4?10
Rosa: Damask Roses 5?10
Rosa: Gallica Roses 5?10
Rosa: Ground Cover Roses 4?10
Rosa: Hybrid Perpetuals 5?10
Rosa: Hybrid Rugosa Roses 3?10
Rosa: Large-flowered (Hybrid Tea) Roses 4?10
Rosa: Miniature Roses 4?11
Rosa: Modern Roses
Rosa: Modern Shrub Roses 4?10
Rosa: Moss Roses 5?10
Rosa: Old (Heritage) Roses
Rosa: Patio (Dwarf Cluster-flowered) Roses 4?11
Rosa: Polyantha Roses 3?10
Rosa: Portland Roses 5?10
Rosa: Scots Roses 4?10
Rosa: Shrub Roses
Rosa: Species Roses
Rosa: Sweet Briar Roses 4?10
Rosa: Tea Roses 7?11
rubrifolia redleaf rose
rugosa 2?10
setigera 4?10
spinosissima 4?10
tomentosa 6?10
villosa apple rose
virginiana 3?10
wichuraiana 5?10
woodsii 4?10

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